The Internet started evolving from Zeroth Generation known as 0G, then we moved to another next generation of the internet known as the First Generation Known as 1G. After the first generation, we moved forward to the Second Generation known as 2G as the speed of 0G, 1G, and 2G was not satisfying so with lots of advancement another generation of internet-developed Third Generation known as 3G. Still, the Speed of 3G was not enough so the development of the Fourth Generation has done and is known as 4G. Now internet is in its next generation which is Fifth Generation known as 5G.
5G is ready to make a revolution in various sectors that rely on the internet. If we discuss worldwide, 5G is currently in its initial stage, various countries have launched 5G and their people are using 5G but in various countries, 5G is in the trial phase and some countries are discussing launching the 5G. So lets we learn everything about 5G like what is 5G? How it works?
Different Generations Of Cellular Technology
Before learning about 5G lets we learn basic thing regarding 0G, 1G, 2G, 3G, and 4G.
Zeroth Generation Or 0G: Mobile radiotelephone is also known as “0G”. These systems are sometimes retroactively referred to as pre-cellular (or sometimes zero-generation) systems developed in the 1970s. ARP (Autoradiopuhelin) in Finland launched the first open, for-profit mobile phone network in 1971.
First Generation Or 1G
The first commercially automated cellular network (the 1G or First Generation) was launched in Japan by Nippon Telegraph And Telephone (NTT) in 1979. 1G analog mobile phones speed up to 2.4kbps(After Data speed 9.6 to 28kbps.
Second Generation Or 2G
2G in Mobile Signal Letter G stands for GPRS (General Packet Radio Service). GPRS is considered to be the second-generation (2G) mobile technology. Data transfer rates in GPRS are between 56 and 114 kbit/second.
Third Generation Or 3G
3G Technology is designed for multimedia communication. It provides services like higher data transfer rates. According to ITU, it was expected that IMT-2000 will provide higher transmission rates: a minimum speed of 2Mbit/s for stationary or walking users, and 348kbit/s for a moving vehicle.
Fourth Generation Or 4G/LTE
LTE/4G in Mobile Signal Stands for the fourth generation of the mobile network and is also called LTE or Long Term Evolution. In 2009, the first commercial LTE deployments took place in Stockholm, Sweden, and Oslo, Norway. 4G can provide speeds of up to 100 Mbit/s.
Since we have learned basic details regarding 1G, 2G, 3G, and 4G i.e. previous generations of cellular technology. Now we will learn about 5G in detail:
What Is 5G?
The term "5G" refers to a wireless connectivity-based fifth-generation network. Additionally, it makes use of radio waves, a new cellular network technology that uses the electromagnetic spectrum.
This 5G network is an improvement over Long Term Evolution (LTE), which operates on three bands: a low band, a mid band, and a high-frequency band. For your information, let me mention that the government has put these bands' spectrum up for auction.
The Low Band has the same frequencies as 4G: 600 MHz, 700 MHz, 800 MHz, 900 MHz, 1800 MHz, 2100 MHz, and 2300 MHz. The Medium Band's frequency is 3300 MHz, and the High Band's frequency is 26 GHz.As a result, 5G networks offer much faster internet speeds than 4G networks.
In the near future, 5G technology will be able to transmit more data over shorter distances, enabling a number of new technologies like virtual reality, cloud gaming, driverless cars, and augmented reality (AR). will give you a lot of facilities to make your daily work easier.
In contrast to 4G networks, which primarily prioritize capacity, 5G networks will prioritize both capacity and speed.
How Does 5G Work?
The radio spectrum band that the 5G network uses is entirely new. These two frequencies, one sub-6 GHz and the other millimeter wave can be used with 5G networks. mm waves operate at 6 GHz at the moment, but once 5G technology is available, they will operate between 30 and 300 GHz. Due to the necessity of both of these factors, 5G must be widely available and fast.
5G networks need smaller cell stations to transmit wireless signals, whereas 4G networks need powerful cell towers to do so. which can be installed in confined spaces like building roofs or light poles. You can receive much better coverage in these areas.
When using MM waves, the network's range is reduced and there is a chance that bad weather will break the signal. In these circumstances, small cell stations are installed close together so that there is no chance of the signal being broken and 5G network speed connectivity is maintained. Due to the difficulty of millimeter waves passing through the middle of a building or other solid object, the 5G network has the advantage of small cells.
Massive MIMO technology is also used in 5g. It has numerous antennas that are used to communicate with various wireless devices. At the base station, massive MIMO employs hundreds or thousands of antennas. Additionally, beamforming technology is used in 5G technology to properly direct the data.
Five Technical Pillars Of 5G Technology
The five technical pillars of 5G technology—Millimeter Wave, Small Cells, Beam Forming, Massive MIMO, and Full Duplex—are described below.
Millimeter waves refer to the spectrum band between 30 and 300 GHz. It has a large amount of data. It can transmit data at 1Gbps (GB per second). Millimeter waves are broadcast using a large number of smaller, shorter-range cell phone towers. Radar systems and satellite networks also communicate using millimeter waves. These millimeter webs connect our smartphones and a variety of other devices.
Small cells are used to block the signal when the signal's range is shortened. The signal can be broadcast from the primary tower, thanks to the installation of more than a thousand small cell towers throughout the region. The 5g network is also easily accessible to users. The small towers are installed at a distance of 250 meters or more. This device uses less power and is comparable to a small portable base station.
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The most effective method of delivering data to a specific user is determined by beamforming, a traffic signaling system for cellular base stations that also ensures that the data is delivered in a specific direction. Radio waves are bent to point in a particular direction to accomplish this.
Multiple Input Multiple Output (massive MIMO) technologies It is a technology that sends and receives more data simultaneously by using two or more transmitters and receivers. When there is more traffic, MIMO technology supports more than 100 antennas at once to increase the capacity of towers. Because of this, users can easily access the 5G network
It is beneficial to simultaneously receive and transmit data in the same frequency band because it acts like a two-way street and sends the same traffic in both directions. Short-wave radio and landline telephones both utilize this technology.
Features of 5G
The first benefit of 5G is that it will be able to deliver data speeds that are much faster than those of 4G. This indicates that there won't be much buffering when downloading or streaming large files.
It will have much lower latency than 4G networks, which is another benefit. As a result, there should be less lag when, for instance, playing an online game or making a phone call.
The world of digital connectivity is about to experience a revolution, thanks to 5G networks. It will support new use cases like autonomous vehicles, IoT devices, and more because of its faster data rates and better latency.
The IMT-2020 air interface technology, which will be the base of the 5G network, is expected to boost mobile networks' performance by ten times. As a result, 5G networks will offer the following advantages:
- faster download speed, lower latency
- support for more devices
- Large data transmission capacity with minimal power consumption
Advanced Features Of 5G
Currently, we are aware of a few unique 5G technology features. Let us tell you about the new features of 5G technology that aren't present in current network technology.
- Having a data rate of up to 10Gbps. In comparison to 4G and 4.5G networks, this results in network improvement at a rate of 10 to 100 times faster.
- A 1/1000-second latency
- It has 1000 times the bandwidth per unit area.
- This allows us to connect up to 100 times as many devices per unit area (if we compare it with 4G LTE).
- This is always available. Because of this, it has a 99.999% availability rate.
- Aside from that, it offers complete coverage.
- This contributes significantly to energy savings. As a result, it contributes to a 90% reduction in network energy consumption.
- By using 5G technology, we can build low-power IoT devices that can provide power for up to ten years.
- It has a higher peak bit rate.
- Has a higher data volume per unit area
- There is more capacity, which allows it to connect to more devices concurrently and instantly.
- Reduced battery consumption
- It provides better connectivity when discussing any geographical region.
- It can support a greater number of devices.
- Infrastructure development is relatively inexpensive.
- Its communications are more reliable.
Advantages Of 5G
- It has the potential to become a universally accepted global standard.
- Through this network, accessibility will be universal, enabling an increasing number of users to access this fantastic technology at any time and from any location.
- The mobile device's IP address will be provided based on its connected network and location thanks to IPv6 technology.
- It has the capacity to turn the entire planet into a genuine Wi-Fi zone.
- Different radio technologies can effectively use the same spectrum thanks to their cognitive radio technology.
- This technology makes it simple for people at higher altitudes to receive radio signals.
- The internet speed of 5G will be significantly faster than that of 4G.
- As a result, less battery power will be used by mobile devices. Because a lot of battery consumed in the current network was to search the data and network.
- Through 5G, upload and download speeds will be very quick.
- This will make it very simple to keep an eye on you, just as a government agency or probe proposal can keep an eye on any region of the globe. It might be possible to lower crime rates as a result of this.
- bi-directional shaping with high resolution and large bandwidth.
- It is more effective and efficient to use 5G technology.
- Heterogeneous service support is also supported by sound technology.
- The missing person can be tracked down and found.
- You can use this to control your PC using a handset.
- You will gain from having multiple services running in parallel in this, such as the ability to know the weather and your location while conversing with someone else.
- With older generations like 4G and 3G, you can manage it with ease.
- With the help of this technology, natural disasters like tsunamis and earthquakes can already be detected quickly.
- The advantages of 5G technology extend beyond the internet of things and will benefit industries like healthcare, infrastructure, education, and manufacturing.
Drawbacks Of 5G
The 5G network has benefits, but it also has drawbacks. The biggest drawback is the additional towers needed to set it up compared to 4G. The reason for this is that stronger transmitters are required to transmit the signal over greater distances at higher frequencies.
- The expense of deploying new infrastructure is another drawback of 5G networks. Installing all the new hardware and towers required for 5G networks would be expensive and time-consuming, possibly taking decades.
- Not every location has a 5G network.
- Customer costs for 5G networks are high.
- For high-volume data requirements, 5G networks are not the best option.