What Is Dengue?Dengue or dengue fever is a viral disease of human beings and it is caused by a bite of a particular mosquito belonging to the Aedes aegypti species. The disease is most prevalent in Southeast Asia, but the outbreak also happens in the Caribbean, Oceania and the Indian subcontinent. More recently, the incidence of dengue has also been reported to be increased in Central and South America.
Dengue fever has come to the limelight these days because of its frequent outbreaks in various parts of the world. Although dengue eradication programs have been launched the menace seems to recurrent and difficult to control.
How Dengue Spread?The carrier of this disease is a dark and small in size female mosquito, belonging to Aedes Aegypti species. It can be identified by white lyre shaped markings and banded legs. These Aedes can lay eggs in both natural locations and artificial containers of water. They prefer to lay eggs in dark-colored containers with wide openings in shady areas.
The mosquito prefers to bite indoors and usually only bites humans. Its activity is said to be on its peak, two hours after sunrise and several hours before sunset. It can also bite at night in lit areas.
Symptoms Of DengueThe disease is characterized by an abrupt onset of fever with head, muscle and joint pains followed by a rash with a second bout of fever after the initial fever remits. Lymph nodes are also often enlarged.
Mild cases of dengue show no swelling of the lymph nodes and the disease subdues in about 72 hours. In severe cases though, the debilitating effects of the disease may last for several days, but death is usually rare. Dengue can also cause a potentially fatal version of the disease, which can result in uncontrolled bleeding and shock.
Dengue is initially suspected based on the incidence of exposure to the endemic areas along with typical dengue symptoms such as characteristic rash with recurrent fever.
Protection Against DengueDiagnostic attempts involve acute and convalescent serologic testing, antigen detection, and PCR of blood. Medicines are given for treatment aim to reduce the severity of symptoms. For the fatal version of the disease, intravascular volume replacement is added to the treatment protocol because of profuse bleeding.
- Presently, there is no vaccine available for the disease so you should try to keep yourself safe from Aedes bites by avoiding mosquito-infested areas.
- Use mosquito repellents and long-sleeved shirts.
- Keep your eyes open and eliminate any potential breeding area for the mosquitoes.
- Use windows and door screens at home and keep the doors and windows closed.
- Netted beddings have to be arranged for the patients already suffering from the disease to stop further spread of the virus through the Aedes.
Eradication Of DengueAs there are no effective vaccines available for the disease; therefore, the only viable way to eradicate the disease is by controlling and exterminating the mosquito populations. Currently, three approaches are being employed for the eradication of mosquitoes internationally:
First ApproachThe first one is the environmental management approach. This approach involves the elimination of such containers, that serve as a mosquito habitat by collecting water.
Any water storage containers, discarded tires, buckets, flowerpots, plates under potted plants, tin cans, clogged rain gutters, ornamental fountains, drums, water bowls for pets, birdbaths and other such objects are ideal breeding habitats for the mosquito and should be removed.
Underground collections of water, such as drains, can also be used by the mosquito for breeding; therefore, such potential habitats should also be managed in a way that any possibility of larval growth can be neutralized.
Second ApproachThe second approach involves chemical control of the Aedes. Insecticides can be used to control the mosquito populations, but their use should be carefully calculated as the mosquitoes can develop resistance against the insecticides. The use of insecticides is only recommended during an epidemic or when there is a possibility of one.
Third ApproachNovel biological control methods are also being applied to control the mosquito population. Organisms, such as crustaceans and fish such as mosquitofish and goldfish, eat mosquito larvae and can be placed in areas where mosquito breeding is a possibility. Dragonflies, small aquatic turtles and beetle larvae have also shown to effective.
Some other innovative biological methods, such as introducing genetically modified disadvantaged mosquito populations. Thus weakening the future mosquito progeny or infecting the mosquitoes with bacteria, have been successfully tried.