It is the nature of humans to do research. We have always been eager to know and understand the world around us. According to scientists, in the beginning, Homo sapiens i.e. modern humans lived only in the Afro-Asian terrain. So the question arises that then how did humans reach remote islands like America, Australia, New Zealand, and Hawaii. About 45,000 years ago, the earliest humans arrived in Australia. To reach Australia, humans crossed several sea channels of hundreds of kilometers without any defense technology.
After all, why did humans put their life on their palm and dare to make obstacles with the ravishing waves of the sea? The short and precise answer to this question is the curiosity of human beings and the urge to know and understand the nature around them and the desire to create a new world. After this trip to Australia, the second biggest event of humanity was that of Apollo-11: stepping humans on the moon. And even now the human being is ready to go to any extent for their curiosity. That is why human is busy searching for that which has no limit. Which does not have any ends. Now humans not only want to go from one continent of the earth to another, but they want to measure the whole universe by passing between planets, satellites, and even the solar system and passing through the stars.
In view of the present conditions, the existence of mankind can be eradicated from the earth within just 200 years and the only appropriate solution to avoid this crisis is that we should colonize space. So now space exploration is not just a matter of thrill and curiosity, it is in fact our duty to preserve the existence of the coming generation and mankind.
Of course, in the future, the most suitable planet for us to form a residential colony by the Earthlings is our neighboring planet Mars. Sending humans to the surface of Mars is one of the most complex and ambitious goals of scientists. However, it is not less than a crooked pudding. First of all, we have to get into the low Earth orbit of the Earth, after that t, we have to make a successful landing on the moon and then the journey of millions of kilometers to go from the moon to Mars will be completed in at least 2 years, it is very optimistic can also disappoint a person. But there are two places which can prove to be an important step in sending humans from Earth to Mars. These two are a stepping stone between the Earth and Mars. These base camps can protect us and our resources from the gravitational force of mars caused by the sudden entry of humans into its orbit. These two stages of reaching from Earth to Mars can be - its two moons revolving around Mars, Deimos and Phobos.
Scientists had long believed that there is no natural satellite or moon of Mars. The astronomer Johannes Kepler, who gave the three famous laws of motion of the planets (Laws of Planetary Motion), first suggested that there are two moons orbiting around this red planet.
In the year 1877, American astronomer Asaf Hall discovered Deimos and Phobos, the moons of Mars. These two small bodies were hidden by the glare of the red planet. The diameter of the Deimos is 13 kilometers, while the diameter of Phobos is 22 kilometers. Significantly, until recently Deimos was considered to be the smallest moon in the Solar System, in the same month astronomers have discovered 2 moons of Saturn, whose diameter is just 5 kilometers.
Mars and Earth have many similarities. Although Mars is a dry and cold planet, it contains many elements that are capable of making it life-friendly, such as water, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, etc. Although the internal structure of the planet Venus, considered a twin of the Earth, is very similar to that of Earth, Mars is uniquely the habitable planet for living conditions. Mars revolves on its axis in about 24 hours 39 minutes and 35 seconds at the same time as the Earth. On Mars, there is a season cycle like the Earth. Like Earth, the atmosphere exists on Mars, although it is very thin. A total of 18 space missions have been sent to Mars so far, out of which only 9 have landed safely on its surface. In fact, we were able to carry out all our campaigns. Because both of the moons of Mars, Phobos, and Deimos provide a unique option. Instead of going directly from Earth to the surface of Mars, humans can set up a station on these rocky moons: a base camp. So that a serious and safe attempt can be made to land man on the surface of Mars.
Phobos is larger than Deimos, and it is about 27 kilometers at its longest dimension. Its structure resembles the structure of the C-type or Carbonaceous Chondrites asteroid. Phobos is orbiting Mars at an altitude of 5,989 km and it takes just 7 hours 39 minutes to complete its orbit. At the same time, Deimos is only 15 kilometers in its longest dimension and orbits Mars every 30 hours at an altitude of 23,460 kilometers.
In 2015, three NASA engineers proposed 'Minimal Architecture to send manned missions to Mars'. They suggested that a process of four steps should be adopted to send humans to Mars. First of all, a manned mission will be sent to Phobos to prepare the infrastructure. After that, the astronauts will go under the surface for a month. Then a year-long campaign will be carried out. And finally, humans will move on to a permanent presence on Mars.
Four rockets of the space launch system would be needed to go to Phobos. The first three rockets, one carrying supplies, the second to make Phobos habitable, and the third carrying a vehicle for the return of astronauts home. The fourth rocket will carry 4 astronauts to Mars via an Orion capsule. Astronauts will stay at Phobos station for about 500 days, will conduct science experiments on Phobos.
Based on the lessons learned from the Phobos mission, NASA will launch six space launch systems for the actual landing on Mars. Finally, Crew will launch a crew of four astronauts, travel to Phobos station, and then prepare to land on Mars. Two astronauts will be landing on Mars while the other two astronauts will stay on Phobos. It is estimated that the first humans will knock on the surface of Mars in the 2030s or 2040s.
In 2024, the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) plans to undertake the Mars Moons Exploration (MMX) mission to travel to Phobos and Deimos. The MMX will land on the surface of Phobos and collect samples there and return to Earth by 2029. Some Human spaceflight proponents have also suggested that NASA should land astronauts on Phobos before Mars. NASA is set to send a manned mission by 2030. However, this is a much more challenging task. However, the answer to when and how the human will reach Mars is in the future womb.