Several companies are currently working on a vaccine against the coronavirus. Some of them are preparing their candidates for human trials, these companies are:

1. Moderna

The US biotechs firm is best known for working on personalized cancer vaccines. The company has a history of involvement in public health threats including the 2015 Zika outbreak. Moderna has already produced an RNA-based vaccine which codes for a stabilized form of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. Phase 1 safety trial is set to begin in April.

2.  Curevac

This German company uses lab-made mRNA to spur the production of coronavirus proteins triggering immune cells to produce antibodies against it. The company expects to test its vaccine on humans within a few months.

3. Inovio

US biotech that uses DNA instead of RNA to make medicines. The company started preclinical testing in January. It has so far produced 3,000 doses for trials to be conducted in patients in the US, China, and South Korea.

4. Applied DNA Sciences/ Takis Biotech

The New York-based Applied DNA Sciences company is partnering with Italy based Takis Biotech to deliver its own DNA based vaccine. The two companies plan to have 4 versions available to test in mice by later this month.

5. Zydus Cadila

This India based pharmaceutical firm announced in February, it had initiated two approaches for developing a COVID-19 vaccine. The first involves using a ring of DNA designed to produce coronavirus protein once inside the human body. The second deals with genetically manipulating an attenuated recombinant measles virus, so that it includes antibodies against COVID-19.

6. Stemirna Therapeutics

This is a Chinese mRNA based vaccine project. Manufacturing has already begun and doses could be ready for human testing in March.

7. Imperial College London

A team of British scientists is currently testing its own DNA-based vaccine. The researchers are looking for funding partners to support the candidates into human testing later this year.

8. GlaxoSmithKline ( GSK)

It is one of the world's leading vaccine manufacturers. GSK is leading its technology to a Chinese firm called Clover Biopharmanceuticalsto work on a coronavirus vaccine. They will be producing viral proteins.

9. Novavax

This US company previously worked on vaccines against SARS and MERS coronavirus. The company announced in February that it had prepared several candidates compromised of recombinant protein nanoparticles derived from the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. They expect to complete animal testing soon.

10. Altimmune

This US company is developing a vaccine that gets spayed into patient's noses. It previously developed a nasal spray flu vaccine. It had completed the design and prototyping of a vaccine against COVID-19.

11. Vaxart

This is the only biotech developing an oral vaccine against COVID-19. In January the company announced plans to generate candidates.

12. Expres2ion

This Denmark based firm is leading a Europian consortium of COVID-19 vaccine developers. It uses insect cells from fruit flies to produce viral antigens. The company plans to test its candidate vaccine in animal models later this year.

13. Generex Biotechnology

Four companies in China have contracted with US-based Generex to develop a vaccine. Using the company's proprietary immune-activating technology. A candidate could be ready for human trials in June.

14. Vaxil Bio

This Israeli immunotherapy company specializes in cancer, but last month it announced the discovery of a combination of proteins that might be effective against COVID-19.

15. iBio

This US-based biotech uses modified relatives of the tobacco plant to grow viral proteins for vaccines. The company is partnering with a Chinese vaccine company to put its "FastPharming" platform to work on a COVID-19 vaccine.

16. Baylor College Of Medicine/ New York Blood Center

This group is looking for funding to test their SARS vaccine against the COVID-19. They already have about 20,000 doses ready to be deployed for clinical trials. The new vaccine is based on the binding receptor domain of the coronavirus.

17. University Of Queensland

A team of Australian researchers has developed a vaccine candidate. They say it is ready to move forward into human testing. The candidate vaccine has relied on a "molecular clamp" technology. which helps stabilize the viral protein, so they have the same shape they'd have on the surface of the virus.

18. University Of Saskatchewan

A team of Canadian University researchers is working on a vaccine against Covis-19. They have used the virus's published genome sequence to begin building protein-based candidates. They are waiting for live versions of the virus to begin testing in animal models.

19. University Of Oxford/ Advent SRL

A team of researchers at the University Of Oxford had been working on a vaccine against MERS which they quickly tailored to the new coronavirus. The scientists are planning to produce the first 1,000 doses for a human trial.

20. Sanofi

Sanofi has been working since 2004 on pandemic preparedness. The company is now focusing on a COVID-19 vaccine using the company's recombinant DNA platform. The platform involves swapping in parts of the coronavirus's RNA with genetic material from a harmless virus. A vaccine candidate to test in animals could be ready within six months.

21. Johnson & Johnson

The company is planning to deactivate the virus, producing a vaccine that triggers an immune response without causing infection.

22. Geovax Labs/ Bravovax

US-based Geovax partnered with Bravovax, a private company from Wuhan, China to jointly develop a vaccine against COVID-19.

23. Tonix

The US-based biopharma startup is collaborating with Southern Research to develop a live, modified horsepox virus. The virus will be modified to express protein fragments from SARS-CoV-2.

24. Cansino Biologics

Chinese vaccine maker Cansino is developing a viral vector-based vaccine.

25. Greffex

This US-based genetic engineering company announced that they have completed the design of a vaccine against COVID-19. Greffex makes adenovirus-based vector vaccines that involved a harmless virus that can be genetically tweaked to express foreign genes like SARS-CoV-2 spike protein.

26. Codagenix

This US-based biotech firm is collaborating with the Serum Institute Of India. The two companies are developing a live, attenuated vaccine against COVID-19. Rather than using blunt forces like heat or chemicals to kill the virus. Codagenix uses a " Deoptimization" strategy to manipulate the virus into a version that can still replicate but won't cause disease.

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